To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the development of low carbon Economy , Has become a world consensus. However, many people still only the "low-carbon economy" as the direction of industrial development, agricultural development related to this it? In this week's national cultural protection and development of traditional agriculture forum, former president of South China Agricultural University, Professor Shi-Ming Luo, China's agricultural development should replace the carbon with low carbon agriculture agriculture, and agriculture is a low-carbon agricultural biodiversity.
In Root Architecture view, the development of agriculture through the slash and burn cultivation stage, the traditional agriculture, and industrialization of agricultural stage. The process of industrialization of agriculture pose a threat to biological diversity: contiguous farmland reclamation and cultivation of natural vegetation caused by reduction, and reduction of natural species, and predators; Pesticide The use of destruction of species diversity; fertilizer resulted in pollution and, in turn lead to loss of biodiversity; breeding process and its genetic background of a single large area, resulting in the exclusion of other species ...... If the carbon The concept of measuring the economy, it can be said that agriculture is a "carbon-intensive agriculture."
Shou that the change in carbon-intensive agriculture is to develop agricultural biodiversity. Avoid the use of agricultural biodiversity as pesticides, fertilizers, etc., a certain sense are belong to low-carbon agriculture.
Shou give a lot of use of biological diversity in agricultural production to solve the problem of the example.For example, Guizhou Province Jiang County's ethnic minorities, often in the paddy fields duck. "Ducks eat the weeds and harmful farm animals, manure back to field crops has become fertilizer. Ducks can stimulate the rice, reduce methane emissions, but also the rice dwarf, reduced lodging."
Farmers in Hebei Province An Jinlei Zaoqiang planted 40 acres of land for 10 years without fertilizer pesticide use Organic Fat. 2004, local outbreaks of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of cotton, many cotton crops, but his field has reached 400 kg per mu. Root Architecture in particular with the slide shows Anjin Lei's "eco-cotton": Centre kinds of little millet cotton, cotton outer ring species of corn, corn circle outside and plant sesame. "Kind of millet to attract birds to eat insects eat grain, corn to lure moths, seed sesame to drive away aphids. These are the maximum protection of the growth of cotton."
Shou also highlighted the issue of genetic diversity. Hybrid Rice Research Institute in China to carry out the use of male sterility gene is the first time from the wild rice found and successfully transferred to the cultivated rice in. If the genetic background of rich crops, not easily degraded, and adaptability to environmental change and the buffering capacity than the strong. Stage of industrialization of agricultural production, breeding over a single genetic background, the large area and rejecting the other varieties. What is the single of the genetic hazard? Shou example: "European potato was introduced from the Americas in 1570, was introduced only a few varieties of large-scale cultivation. 1846 appeared in the Irish potato late blight is very serious, as genes similar to the potato have been infected cut by half. "
Reality is also very worrying. Sri Lanka in 1959, has 2,000 varieties of rice, the current stock of less than 100; Indonesia rice also decreased by 74%; the current U.S. wheat varieties accounted for 9 of the 50% of all wheat varieties. Shou continue example: 1903 vegetable varieties registered in the United States by 1983 significantly reduced, asparagus reduced by the 46 species 1 species, 288 kinds of carrots reduced by the 21 species, 497 kinds of lettuce reduced by the 36 species, 578 kinds of beans from the reduced 32 kinds of ... ... In China, experts in south China between 1959-2005 pedigree breeding rice varieties were analyzed, results showed that rice varieties mainly from the parents of 14 landraces or varieties derived from abroad, the greatest impact No. parents Nantes victory indica, Guangxi Aizizhan and International Rice Research Institute of IR8, the majority of modern varieties from the four kinds.
Urgent protection of agricultural biodiversity. Shou stressed not only to biological diversity itself, but also to low-carbon economy.